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Webinar: Upper Respiratory Infection in Cats

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A free online class brought to you by Bioguard

Get familiar with upper respiratory infection in cats. Sponsored by Bioguard Corporation and presented by Dr. Yung-Tsun Lo, DVM /Ph.D., this is the next webinar you don't want to miss.

Access to the on-demand recording is FREE

Obtain a CERTIFICATE of attendance



Upper respiratory infections are frequently observed in cats that have been exposed to other felines, such as at shelters, breeding catteries, and feral cat colonies. These infections can be caused by various types of pathogens, which can hurt the overall health of the cat. In this webinar, we will discuss the common causes of upper respiratory infections. In this webinar, we will discuss the common causes, diagnosis, and treatments of feline upper respiratory infection.


Dr. Lo obtained his D.V.M. degree from National Chiayi University and his Ph.D. from the College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University. He has expertise in virology, clinical microbiology, and immunology. Previously, he worked as the Director of the Reference Lab at Bioguard Corporation. Currently, he works as Technical Support Manager at Bioguard Corporation.

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Feb. 29

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8 PM – 9 PM

Taipei Local Time

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Certificate of Attendance

eCertificate will be issued to the registered attendants joining the webinar for at least 50 minutes.

How to Join: Three Options:

Option 1: Watch via ZOOM

You can join us live directly via Zoom by simply registering. Please note that we will send you the link that is unique to you and should not be shared with anyone.

Option 2: Watch on our FACEBOOK Page

Follow our Facebook page and join us live during the webinar.

Option 3: Watch at your LEISURE

Registering to attend this webinar will also gain you access to the on-demand recording, which will be available 24 hours later.


We look forward to seeing you at this event.

Happy Learning!

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What's New

Logo & Visual Identity

This design features two organic shapes that embrace the logotype, expressing the emotional connection between Bioguard and companion animals through heartfelt guardianship. The shape integrates genetic cells and specimen elements organically.

Additionally, The central part of the logotype incorporates an organic shape motif into the “b” and “d” letters in white font, consistent with the overall shape.

The logo incorporates the red cross symbol to emphasize the medical industry category, consistent with our previous logo. It also mirrors our slogan, “Science For Animal Care,” encapsulates our mission and values, emphasizing our fusion of technology and empathy.

The logo is also interpreted as a shield representing our commitment to protecting our companion animals through innovative diagnostics technology, as our name, Bioguard, suggests, like a guardian of animal lives.

Read more

Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Rabbits

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Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a microsporidial, unicellular, spore-forming, obligate intracellular parasite. It can invade the host's central nervous system, kidneys, crystals, etc. E. cuniculi affects rabbits by causing damage to the brain, nervous system, kidneys, and other important organs.

E. cuniculi pose a zoonotic risk to immune-compromised humans. In addition, it can infect various mammals, such as rabbits, rats, mice, horses, foxes, cats, dogs, muskrats, leopards, and baboons.

Transmission and Life Cycle

E. cuniculi has a direct life cycle with both horizontal and vertical (transplacental) transmission. In rabbits, the common routes of natural horizontal infection are via the ingestion of contaminated food or water or, less commonly, via inhalation of spores.
After ingestion, the spores invade enterocytes and then spread through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. Then, it is carried into the blood circulation to target organs (kidney, central nervous system, eye, liver, and heart) where it causes inflammation. Antibodies can be detected 2-3 weeks after infection, and IgM are usually detectable up to 18 weeks post-exposure. Spores are passed in the urine of rabbits, beginning around 35 days after infection, and continue to be excreted for 2 to 3 months.

Serological surveys show high seroprevalence rates (23-75%) of E. cuniculi in rabbits. The seroprevalence rate of E. cuniculi is about 63.2-67.8% in Taiwan. However, most are asymptomatic and few are found to be affected by disease.

Clinical signs

When E. cuniculi infect the rabbits, the common clinical signs include head tilt (vestibular disease), hind limb paresis (weakness of the hind limbs), urinary incontinence, renal failure, cloudy eyes (anterior uveitis), cloudy lenses of the eyes (cataracts), or even blindness.


Clinical diagnosis of encephalitozoonosis can be challenging because of the following reasons. 1. Serologic evidence is strong evidence of infection but not indicative of clinical signs. 2. Seroconversion does not result in a protective response for the patient. 3. Histologic severity and distribution of lesions are not directly correlated with the severity of clinical signs. 4. Most infected rabbits are asymptomatic or carriers. Diagnostic methods of encephalitozoonosis include histopathology, serology, and molecular diagnosis.

  • Histopathology- histological examination combined with special staining, or concentrated urine for cytological microsporidia detection
  • Serology- indirect immune fluorescence antibody test, direct agglutination test, ELISA, western blot
  • Molecular diagnosis- PCR

Treatment and Prevention

No uniformly effective treatment has been established. Fenbendazole, Albendazole, and Oxibendazole may be effective in vivo. The treatment of choice generally is fenbendazole, because it has been shown to both prevent and treat E cuniculi infections. To reduce the inflammatory reaction, steroids or NSAIDS may be applied. The use of systemic steroid therapy, although controversial, has been advocated to reduce severe CNS inflammation. The risk with this treatment is that corticosteroids might suppress the immune system to the point that E cuniculi or other infectious organisms may create additional problems. Cases involving the ocular form need to be referred to a veterinary ophthalmologist if surgery is recommended. Prevention of the disease from spreading includes thoroughly cleaning the rabbit’s environment, applying a diluted solution of bleach (1:32) for disinfection, and providing clean water and food to rabbits.


Bioguard’s Qmini PCR can detect E. cuniculi DNA in 90 minutes at your clinics using urine or blood as samples.

To learn more about Qmini PCR, click here
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For any direct inquiries, please contact us at: [email protected]

About Bioguard Corporation

The Bioguard is a company focusing on animal disease diagnostic services and products.
Our animal health diagnostic center is the first and only ISO/ IEC 17025 accredited animal disease testing laboratory in Taiwan and China.

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