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Ticks and tick-borne pathogens have been rapidly expanding their ranges into new regions over the last two decades, driven by several environmental and socio-economic factors, including climate change. This expansion has caused a significant concern for public health and has led to the increasing use of spatial modeling techniques to track and assess the current and future distributions of ticks and tick-borne pathogens.

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Among the species reported, Ixodes ricinus has the broadest range of distribution, covering 29 countries, with a longitudinal range from Lisbon, Portugal (9.2°W) to south of Kyiv, Ukraine (30.6°E), and a latitudinal range from Djebel Zaghouan, Tunisia (36.4°N) to Dønna, Norway (66.2°N). Dermacentor reticulatus is present in central and northern Europe, while D. marginatus has a more southernly range around the Mediterranean, albeit with a narrower distributional range.

Given the significant impact that ticks have on both humans and animals, it is crucial to have up-to-date and reliable information on their distribution to mitigate the associated risks effectively.

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Avian Influenza (AIV)

Avian influenza, commonly known as bird flu, is a contagious viral disease that can spread rapidly among domesticated birds like chickens, ducks, and turkeys. The birds can contract the virus through direct contact with infected waterfowl or other infected poultry, or by coming into contact with contaminated surfaces.

Avian influenza outbreaks in domesticated birds are of particular concern due to several reasons.

1. Firstly, low pathogenic avian influenza A(H5) and A(H7) viruses have the potential to evolve into highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5) and A(H7) viruses, which can have major agricultural implications.
2. Secondly, highly pathogenic avian influenza can spread quickly and cause significant illness and death among poultry during outbreaks.
3. Thirdly, these outbreaks can result in severe economic impacts and trade restrictions.
4. Finally, there is a risk that avian influenza A viruses could be transmitted to humans who are exposed to infected birds, which could lead to serious health consequences.

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It is important to take proper precautions to prevent the spread of avian influenza in domesticated birds and to monitor for any signs of outbreak to prevent serious consequences.

Avian Influenza can be diagnosed through various methods such as detection of AI viral RNA, detection of AI-specific antibodies and AI virus isolation. It is important to note that clinical signs alone are not enough to confirm the presence of avian influenza.

When it comes to treatment, antimicrobials can be used to control secondary pathogens, while providing supportive care to the affected flocks. For LPAI-affected flocks, using broad-spectrum antimicrobials and increasing house temperatures may help decrease morbidity and mortality rates. It is important to note that treatment with antiviral compounds is not approved or recommended.

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Bioguard Corporation focuses on providing animal disease diagnostic services and products.
Our animal health diagnostic center is the first and only ISO/ IEC 17025 accredited animal disease testing laboratory in Taiwan and China.

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