The article: One-Year Mortality and Associated Factors in Patients Receiving Out-of-Hospital Naloxone for Presumed Opioid Overdose in Annals of Emergency Medicine
Volume 75, Issue 5, May 2020, studied over 3,000 opioid overdose victims who received out-of-hospital naloxone, and tracked their mortality over a year.
This retrospective cohort study of 3,085 patients in North Carolina showed that mortality at one year was 12% in those who responded to treatment. Older age and being black were associated with 1-year mortality. This rate, in comparison to the population at large, indicates that the Naloxone users were 13.2 times more likely to be dead at 1 year than age-matched controls in the general population.
This suggests the obvious - that people who received Naloxone are a high-risk population that needs focused intervention from public health officials, policymakers, and health care providers. Naloxone use is both a short-term lifesaving medication, and a medium-term klaxon indicating that sustained and comprehensive intervention is required.